In Mesopotamia there prevailed dissertation a pattern of independent warring city-states and of a loose hegemony shifting from one city to another. Citation needed In Egypt, by contrast, first there was a dual division into Upper and Lower Egypt which was shortly followed by unification of all the valley around 3100 bce, followed by permanent pacification. In Crete the minoan civilization had entered the Bronze age by 2700 bce and is regarded as the first civilization in Europe. Over the next millennia, other river valleys saw monarchical empires rise to power. Citation needed In the 25th 21st centuries bce, the empires of akkad and Sumer arose in Mesopotamia. Over the following millennia, civilizations developed across the world. Trade increasingly became a source of power as states with access to important resources or controlling important trade routes rose to dominance. Citation needed by 1400 bce, mycenaean Greece began to develop.
It was in these cities that the make earliest known form of writing, cuneiform script, appeared around 3000 bce. Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. These pictorial representations eventually became simplified and more abstract. Cuneiform texts were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed used as a stylus. Writing made the administration of a large state far easier. Transport was facilitated by waterways—by rivers and seas. The mediterranean sea, at the juncture of three continents, fostered the projection of military power and the exchange of goods, ideas, and inventions. This era also saw new land technologies, such as horse-based cavalry and chariots, that allowed armies to move faster. These developments led to the rise of territorial states and empires.
Entities such as the sun, moon, earth, sky, and sea were often deified. Citation needed Shrines developed, which evolved into temple establishments, complete with a complex hierarchy of priests and priestesses and other functionaries. Typical of the neolithic was a tendency to worship anthropomorphic deities. Among the earliest surviving written religious scriptures are the Egyptian Pyramid Texts, the oldest of which date to between 24 bce. Ancient history main article: Ancient history Cradles of civilization main articles: Cradle of civilization, bronze age, and Iron Age The Bronze age is part of the three-age system ( Stone Age, bronze age, iron Age ) that for some parts of the world describes effectively. During this era the most fertile areas of the world saw city-states and the first civilizations develop. These were concentrated in fertile river valleys: the tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the nile in Egypt, citation needed the Indus in the Indian subcontinent, and the yangtze and Yellow rivers in China. Sumer, located in Mesopotamia, is the first known complex civilization, developing the first city-states in the 4th millennium bce.
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3000 bce china (c. 1600 bce and Mesoamerica (c. Farming permitted far denser populations, which in time organized into states. Agriculture also created food surpluses that could support people not directly engaged in food production. The development of agriculture permitted the creation of the first cities.
These were centres of trade, manufacturing and political power. Cities established a symbiosis with their surrounding countrysides, absorbing agricultural products and providing, in return, manufactured goods and varying degrees of military control and protection. The development of cities was synonymous with the rise of civilization. A early civilizations arose first in Lower Mesopotamia (3000 bce followed by trip Egyptian civilization along the nile river (3000 bce the harappan civilization in the Indus river Valley (in present-day india and pakistan; 2500 bce and Chinese civilization along the yellow and Yangtze rivers (2200. These societies developed a number of unifying characteristics, including a central government, a complex economy and social structure, sophisticated language and writing systems, and distinct cultures and religions. Writing facilitated the administration of cities, the expression of ideas, and the preservation of information.
In the Indus Valley, crops were cultivated by 6000 bce, along with domesticated cattle. The yellow river valley in China cultivated millet and other cereal crops by about 7000 bce, but the yangtze river valley domesticated rice earlier, by at least 8000 bce. In the Americas, sunflowers were cultivated by about 4000 bce, and corn and beans were domesticated in Central America by 3500 bce. Potatoes were first cultivated in the Andes mountains of south America, where the llama was also domesticated. Metal-working, starting with copper around 6000 bce, was first used for tools and ornaments.
Gold soon followed, with its main use being for ornaments. The need for metal ores stimulated trade, as many of the areas of early human settlement were lacking in ores. Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, is first known from about 2500 bce, but did not become widely used until much later. Though early "cities" appeared at Jericho and Catal huyuk around 6000 bce, the first civilizations did not emerge until around 3000 bce in Egypt and Mesopotamia. These cultures gave birth to the invention of the wheel, mathematics, bronze-working, sailing boats, the pottery wheel, woven cloth, construction of monumental buildings, and writing. Writing developed independently and at different times in five areas of the world: Egypt (c. 3200 bce india (c. 3200 bce mesopotamia (c.
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Perhaps as early.8 million years ago, but certainly by 500,000 years ago, humans began using fire for heat and cooking. They also developed language in the paleolithic period and a conceptual repertoire the that included systematic burial of the dead and adornment of the living. Early artistic expression can be found in the form of cave paintings and sculptures made from ivory, stone, and bone, showing a spirituality generally interpreted as animism, or even shamanism. During this period, all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, and were generally nomadic. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while dissertation avoiding dense forest cover. 28 Rise of civilization The neolithic revolution, beginning around 10,000 bce, saw the development of agriculture, which fundamentally changed the human lifestyle. Farming developed around 10,000 bce in the middle east, around 7000 bce in what is now China, about 6000 bce in the Indus Valley and Europe, and about 4000 bce in the Americas. Cultivation of cereal crops and the domestication of animals occurred around 8500 bce in the middle east, where wheat and barley were the first crops and sheep and goats were domesticated.
Outside this region, including ancient China and ancient India, historical timelines unfolded differently. However, by the 18th century, due to extensive world trade and colonization, the histories of most civilizations had become substantially intertwined. In the last quarter-millennium, the rates of growth of population, knowledge, technology, communications, commerce, weapons destructiveness, and environmental degradation have greatly accelerated, creating opportunities and perils that now confront the planet's human communities. Contents Prehistory main articles: Prehistory and Human evolution Early humans Genetic measurements indicate that the ape lineage which would lead to homo sapiens diverged from the lineage that would lead to chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living relatives of modern humans, around.6.2. Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa about 200,000 years ago, 20 and reached behavioural modernity about 50,000 years ago. 21 Modern humans spread rapidly from Africa into the frost-free zones of Europe and Asia around 60,000 years ago. 22 The rapid expansion of humankind to north America and Oceania role took place at the climax of the most recent ice age, when temperate regions of today were extremely inhospitable. Yet, humans had colonized nearly all the ice-free parts of the globe by the end of the Ice Age, some 12,000 years ago. Other hominids such as Homo erectus had been using simple wood and stone tools for millennia, but as time progressed, tools became far more refined and complex.
including the Classical Age, up to about 500 CE) saw the rise and fall of empires. Post-classical history (the " Middle Ages. 5001500 ce ) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c. 1258 ce and the early Italian Renaissance (from around 1300 CE). The early modern Period, sometimes referred to as the "European Age from about 1500 to 1800, included the Age of Enlightenment and the Age of Discovery. The mid-15th-century invention of modern printing, employing movable type, revolutionized communication and facilitated ever wider dissemination of information, helping end the middle Ages and ushering in the Scientific revolution. By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial revolution and began the late modern Period, which starts around 1800 and includes the current day. This scheme of historical periodization (dividing history into Antiquity, post-Classical, early modern, and Late modern periods) was developed for, and applies best to, the history of the Old World, particularly europe and the mediterranean.
The neolithic saw the. Agricultural revolution begin, between 80, bce, in the, near East 's. The Agricultural revolution marked a fundamental change in history, with humans beginning the systematic husbandry of plants and animals. As agriculture advanced, most humans transitioned from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements. The relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed communities to expand into increasingly larger units, fostered by advances in transportation. Whether in prehistoric or historic times, people always needed to be near reliable sources of potable water. Cities developed on river banks as early as 3000 bce, when some of the first well-developed settlements arose in Mesopotamia, on the banks of Egypt 's Nile river, in the Indus river valley, and along China's rivers. As farming developed, grain agriculture became more paper sophisticated and prompted a division of labour to store food between growing seasons.
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This article is about the review history of humanity. For the entire history of Earth, see. For a field of historical study, see. For other uses, see, history of the world (disambiguation). "Human history" redirects here. For humanity's evolutionary history, see. World population, 10,000 bce 2,000 ce (vertical population scale is logarithmic) 1, the history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded. Humanity's written history was preceded by its prehistory, beginning with the, palaeolithic Era early Stone Age followed by the. Neolithic Era new Stone Age.